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The term spread can also be understood as denoting the credit spread differential between the rate of return of a bond and that of another title taken as a reference (benchmark), in the latter case, for example, if a bond with a certain maturity with a yield of 7% and the corresponding German Bundesanleihe with the same maturity with a yield of 3%, then the spread will be 7-3 = 4 percentage points or 400 basis points.

The expected return or required (and eventually offered) may in fact go up or down depending on the degree of confidence of investors / creditors, in turn measured by any imbalances between supply and demand of securities: if the supply is higher than demand, the expected return increases for groped to balance the demand and vice versa.